Calling Lake Christmas 2017 – Don’t Miss It!

If you’re in the area, be sure not to miss this year’s Christmas Dinner and Show at Calling Lake. If you learn only one Cree word before you go, make sure it’s mâmaskâc! (Congratulations, Lance and crew: I’m sure you’ll knock their socks off!) Contact Lance for more information at 780-891-8204, or check the FaceBook Calling Lake Community Event Page.  

Posted in Christmas, Community News, Events | Leave a comment

Merry Christmas from Calling Lake and Lance Cardinal (2016)

From the 2016 community ice show in Calling Lake!
I didn’t discover this little piece of magic until January, so I’ve held it to share on its anniversary in 2017. I can’t wait to see what Lance and his Calling Lake crew get up to this year.

To all of them, and to all of you:

nipakosîyimonân anohc ta-miyopayihikoyêk êkwa mîna ôma kâ-pê-oski-askîwik
ᓂᐸᑯᓰᔨᒧᓈᐣ ᐊᓄᐦᐨ ᑕᒥᔪᐸᔨᐦᐃᑯᔦᐠ ᐁᑿ ᒦᓇ ᐆᒪ ᑳᐯᐅᐢᑭᐊᐢᑮᐏᐠ
Wishing you good things to happen today and in the coming year.

Posted in Christmas, Video | Leave a comment

Catherine Moise’s Little Song (th-dialect, video)

A really charming little song from Catherine Moise of Lac Brochet who made up her own Cree words to the tune of Mother Maybelle Carter’s You are my Flower – and had her daughter Lisa post it on Facebook,. People call Mother Maybelle a treasure: obviously Catherine Moise is another! Thanks to Christine Ravenis for sharing on Facebook, and to Solomon Ratt for transcribing and translating Catherine’s words!

kiyâpic apisîs nikiskisin iyako mânaᑭᔮᐱᐨ ᐊᐱᓰᐢ ᓂᑭᐢᑭᓯᐣ ᐃᔭᑯ ᒫᓇThis song I heard from long ago
kiyâpic niwî-nikamon mâna ôma nikamonᑭᔮᐱᐨ ᓂᐑᓂᑲᒧᐣ ᒫᓇ ᐆᒪ ᓂᑲᒧᐣ I still remember a little this song I'm going to sing
nimithohtîn mâna ôma nikamonᓂᒥᖪᐦᑏᐣ ᒫᓇ ᐆᒪ ᓂᑲᒧᐣ I like to hear this song
kayâs mâna nikî-pihtîn mahti mânaᑲᔮᐢ ᒫᓇ ᓂᑮᐱᐦᑏᐣ ᒪᐦᑎ ᒫᓇ A long time ago I used to hear this
kiyâpic ninohtî-nikamon mânaᑭᔮᐱ ᓂᓄᐦᑏᓂᑲᒧᐣ ᒫᓇ I usually still want to sing
kayâs ohci ôma nikî-pihtînᑲᔮᐢ ᐅᐦᒋ ᐆᒪ ᓂᑮᐱᐦᑏᐣ I heard from a long time ago
kiyâpic nikiskisin anohcᑭᔮᐱc ᓂᑭᐢᑭᓯᐣ ᐊᓄᐦᐨ I still remember (it) today
nimithohtîn mâna ôma nikamonᓂᒥᑐᐦᑏᐣ ᒫᓇ ᐆᒪ ᓂᑲᒧᐣ I like the sound of this song
nikiskitotâkwak mânaᓂᑭᐢᑭᑐᑖᑿᐠ ᒫᓇ They remember me
kiyâpic nikiskitotâkwakᑭᔮᐱᐨ ᓂᑭᐢᑭᑐᑖᑿᐠ they still remember me
kikiskisotawinân mânaᓂᑭᐢᑭᑐᑕᐏᓈᐣ ᒫᓇ you remember us
kayâs mâna kapî î-nitohtîyânᑲᔮᐢ ᒫᓇ ᑲᐲ ᐄᓂᑐᐦᑏᔮᐣ A long time ago I always listened
kiyâpic mâna nikiskisin mâna nikamonᑭᔮᐱᐨ ᒫᓇ ᓂᑭᐢᑭᓯᐣ ᒫᓇ ᓂᑲᒧᐣ I still remember this song
nikî-pihtîn mâna ôma nikamonᓂᑮᐱᐦᑏᐣ ᒫᓇ ᐆᒪ ᓂᑲᒧᐣ I usually heard this song
kayâs ohci mâna nâh-nikamon. ᑲᔮᐢ ᐅᐦᒋ ᒫᓇ ᓈᐦᓂᑲᒧᐣ᙮ a long time ago I sing it.
Posted in Audio (th-dialect), Songs in Cree, Uncategorized, Video | Leave a comment

12 Days of Christmas: Solomon Ratt (th-dialect, with audio)

What do you get if you take a Christmas song that’s already loved for packing in a lot of nonsense, and translate it into Cree where the nonsense demands a whole lot more syllables? (Thanks, Sol: Love the hat!)

  1. A challenge
  2. A good laugh
  3. Both!
piyakwâw î-makosî-kîsikâk nîcimos nimîthikᐱᔭᒁᐤ ᐄᒪᑯᓰᑮᓯᑳᐠ ᓃᒋᒧᐢ ᓂᒦᖨᐠOn the first day of Christmas, my sweetheart gave me
piyak môswa sakâhk î-ayâtᐱᔭᐠ ᒨᔁ ᓴᑳᕽ ᐃᐊᔮᐟOne moose in the bush
nîswâw î-makosî-kîsikâk nîcimos nimîthikᓃᔃᐤ ᐄᒪᑯᓰᑮᓯᑳᐠ ᓃᒋᒧᐢ ᓂᒦᖨᐠOn the second day of Christmas, my sweetheart gave me
nîso mîmîwaᓃᓱ ᒦᒦᐘTwo doves
ikwa piyak môswa sakâhk î-ayât.ᐃᑿ ᐱᔭᐠ ᒨᔁ ᓴᑳᕽ ᐄᐊᔮᐟAnd one moose in the bush
nistwâw î-makosî-kîsikâk nîcimos nimîthikᓂᐢᑤᐤ ᓂᐢᑤᐤ ᐄᒪᑯᓰᑮᓯᑳᐠ ᓃᒋᒧᐢ ᓂᒦᖨᐠOn the third day of Christmas, my sweetheart gave me
nisto pithîwaᓂᐢᑐ ᐱᖩᐘThree grouse
nîso mîmîwaᓃᓱ ᒦᒦᐘTwo doves
ikwa piyak môswa sakâhk î-ayât.ᐃᑿ ᐱᔭᐠ ᒨᔁ ᓴᑳᕽ ᐃᐊᔮᐟAnd one moose in the bush
nîwâw î-makosî-kîsikâk nîcimos nimîthikᓃᐚᐤ ᐄᒪᑯᓰᑮᓯᑳᐠ ᓃᒋᒧᐢ ᓂᒦᖨᐠOn the fourth day of Christmas, my sweetheart gave me
niyo sîsîpaᓂᔪ ᓰᓰᐸFour
nisto pithîwaᓂᐢᑐ ᐱᖩᐘThree grouse
nîso mîmîwaᓃᓱ ᒦᒦᐘTwo doves
ikwa piyak môswa sakâhk î-ayât.ᐃᑿ ᐱᔭᐠ ᒨᔁ ᓴᑳᕽ ᐃᐊᔮᐟAnd one moose in the bush
niyânanwâw î-makosî-kîsikâk nîcimos nimîthikᓂᔮᓇᓎᐤ ᐄᒪᑯᓰᑮᓯᑳᐠ ᓃᒋᒧᐢ ᓂᒦᖨᐠOn the fifth day of Christmas, my sweetheart gave me
niyânan wâposwaᓂᔮᓇᐣ ᐚᐳᔁFive rabbits
niyo sîsîpaᓂᔪ ᓰᓰᐸFour ducks
nisto pithîwaᓂᐢᑐ ᐱᖩᐘThree grouse
nîso mîmîwaᓃᓱ ᒦᒦᐘTwo doves
ikwa piyak môswa sakâhk î-ayât.ᐃᑿ ᐱᔭᐠ ᒨᔁ ᓴᑳᕽ ᐃᐊᔮᐟAnd one moose in the bush
nikotwâsikwâw î-makosî-kîsikâk nîcimos nimîthikᓂᑯᑤᓯᒁᐤ ᐄᒪᑯᓰᑮᓯᑳᐠ ᓃᒋᒧᐢ ᓂᒦᖨᐠOn the sixth day of Christmas, my sweetheart gave me
nikotwâsik mahkîsîsaᓂᑯᑤᓯᐠ ᒪᐦᑮᓰᓴSix foxes
niyânan wâposwaᓂᔮᓇᐣ ᐚᐳᔁFive rabbits
niyo sîsîpaᓂᔪ ᓰᓰᐸFour ducks
nisto pithîwaᓂᐢᑐ ᐱᖩᐘThree grouse
nîso mîmîwaᓃᓱ ᒦᒦᐘTwo doves
ikwa piyak môswa sakâhk î-ayât.ᐃᑿ ᐱᔭᐠ ᒨᔁ ᓴᑳᕽ ᐃᐊᔮᐟAnd one moose in the bush
tîpakohpwâw î-makosî-kîsikâk nîcimos nimîthikᑏᐸᑯᐦᑇᐤ ᐄᒪᑯᓰᑮᓯᑳᐠ ᓃᒋᒧᐢ ᓂᒦᖨᐠOn the seventh day of Christmas, my sweetheart gave me
tîpakohp wâpisiwaᑏᐸᑯᐦᑊ ᐚᐱᓯᐘSeven swans
nikotwâsik mahkîsîsaᓂᑯᑤᓯᐠ ᒪᐦᑮᓰᓴSix foxes
niyânan wâposwaᓂᔮᓇᐣ ᐚᐳᔁFive rabbits
niyo sîsîpaᓂᔪ ᓰᓰᐸFour ducks
nisto pithîwaᓂᐢᑐ ᐱᖩᐘThree grouse
nîso mîmîwaᓃᓱ ᒦᒦᐘTwo doves
ikwa piyak môswa sakâhk î-ayât.ᐃᑿ ᐱᔭᐠ ᒨᔁ ᓴᑳᕽ ᐃᐊᔮᐟAnd one moose in the bush
ayinânîwâw î-makosî-kîsikâk nîcimos nimîthikᐊᔨᓈᓃᐚᐤ ᐄᒪᑯᓰᑮᓯᑳᐠ ᓃᒋᒧᐢ ᓂᒦᖨᐠOn the eighth day of Christmas, my sweetheart gave me
ayinânîw nikikwaᐊᔨᓈᓃᐤ ᓂᑭᑿEight otters
tîpakohp wâpisiwaᑏᐸᑯᐦᑊ ᐚᐱᓯᐘSeven swans
nikotwâsik mahkîsîsaᓂᑯᑤᓯᐠ ᒪᐦᑮᓰᓴSix foxes
niyânan wâposwaᓂᔮᓇᐣ ᐚᐳᔁFive rabbits
niyo sîsîpaᓂᔪ ᓰᓰᐸFour ducks
nisto pithîwaᓂᐢᑐ ᐱᖩᐘThree grouse
nîso mîmîwaᓃᓱ ᒦᒦᐘTwo doves
ikwa piyak môswa sakâhk î-ayât.ᐃᑿ ᐱᔭᐠ ᒨᔁ ᓴᑳᕽ ᐃᐊᔮᐟAnd one moose in the bush
kîkâ-mitâtahtwâw î-makosî-kîsikâk nîcimos nimîthikᑮᑳᒥᑖᑕᐦᑤᐤ ᐄᒪᑯᓰᑮᓯᑳᐠ ᓃᒋᒧᐢ ᓂᒦᖨᐠOn the ninth day of Christmas, my sweetheart gave me
kîkâ-mitâtaht sâkwîsiwaᑮᑳᓂᑖᑕᐦᐟ ᓵᑹᓯᐘNine minks
ayinânîw nikikwaᐊᔨᓈᓃᐤ ᓂᑭᑿEight otters
tîpakohp wâpisiwaᑏᐸᑯᐦᑊ ᐚᐱᓯᐘSeven swans
nikotwâsik mahkîsîsaᓂᑯᑤᓯᐠ ᒪᐦᑮᓰᓴSix foxes
niyânan wâposwaᓂᔮᓇᐣ ᐚᐳᔁFive rabbits
niyo sîsîpaᓂᔪ ᓰᓰᐸFour ducks
nisto pithîwaᓂᐢᑐ ᐱᖩᐘThree grouse
nîso mîmîwaᓃᓱ ᒦᒦᐘTwo doves
ikwa piyak môswa sakâhk î-ayât.ᐃᑿ ᐱᔭᐠ ᒨᔁ ᓴᑳᕽ ᐃᐊᔮᐟAnd one moose in the bush
mitâtahtwâw î-makosî-kîsikâk nîcimos nimîthikᒥᑖᑕᐦᑤᐤ ᐄᒪᑯᓰᑮᓯᑳᐠ ᓃᒋᒧᐢ ᓂᒦᖨᐠOn the tenth day of Christmas, my sweetheart gave me
mitâtaht sihkosaᒥᑖᑕᐦᐟ ᓯᐦᑯᓴTen ermines
kîkâ-mitâtaht sâkwîsiwaᑮᑳᓂᑖᑕᐦᐟ ᓵᑹᓯᐘNine minks
ayinânîw nikikwaᐊᔨᓈᓃᐤ ᓂᑭᑿEight otters
tîpakohp wâpisiwaᑏᐸᑯᐦᑊ ᐚᐱᓯᐘSeven swans
nikotwâsik mahkîsîsaᓂᑯᑤᓯᐠ ᒪᐦᑮᓰᓴSix foxes
niyânan wâposwaᓂᔮᓇᐣ ᐚᐳᔁFive rabbits
niyo sîsîpaᓂᔪ ᓰᓰᐸFour ducks
nisto pithîwaᓂᐢᑐ ᐱᖩᐘThree grouse
nîso mîmîwaᓃᓱ ᒦᒦᐘTwo doves
ikwa piyak môswa sakâhk î-ayât.ᐃᑿ ᐱᔭᐠ ᒨᔁ ᓴᑳᕽ ᐃᐊᔮᐟAnd one moose in the bush
piyakosâpwâw î-makosî-kîsikâk nîcimos nimîthikᐱᔭᑯᐢᐋᑇᐤ ᐄᒪᑯᓰᑮᓯᑳᐠ ᓃᒋᒧᐢ ᓂᒦᖨᐠOn the eleventh day of Christmas, my sweetheart gave me
piyakosâp amiskwaᐱᔭᑯᓵᑊ ᐊᒥᐢᑿEleven beavers
mitâtaht sihkosaᒥᑖᑕᐦᐟ ᓯᐦᑯᓴTen ermines
kîkâ-mitâtaht sâkwîsiwaᑮᑳᓂᑖᑕᐦᐟ ᓵᑹᓯᐘNine minks
ayinânîw nikikwaᐊᔨᓈᓃᐤ ᓂᑭᑿEight otters
tîpakohp wâpisiwaᑏᐸᑯᐦᑊ ᐚᐱᓯᐘSeven swans
nikotwâsik mahkîsîsaᓂᑯᑤᓯᐠ ᒪᐦᑮᓰᓴSix foxes
niyânan wâposwaᓂᔮᓇᐣ ᐚᐳᔁFive rabbits
niyo sîsîpaᓂᔪ ᓰᓰᐸFour ducks
nisto pithîwaᓂᐢᑐ ᐱᖩᐘThree grouse
nîso mîmîwaᓃᓱ ᒦᒦᐘTwo doves
ikwa piyak môswa sakâhk î-ayât.ᐃᑿ ᐱᔭᐠ ᒨᔁ ᓴᑳᕽ ᐃᐊᔮᐟAnd one moose in the bush
nîsosâpwâw î-makosî-kîsikâk nîcimos nimîthikᓃᓱᓵᑇᐤ ᐄᒪᑯᓰᑮᓯᑳᐠ ᓃᒋᒧᐢ ᓂᒦᖨᐠOn the twelfth day of Christmas, my sweetheart gave me
nîsosâp mahihkanaᓃᓱᓵᑊ ᒪᐦᐃᐦᑲᓇTwelve wolves
piyakosâp amiskwaᐱᔭᑯᓵᑊ ᐊᒥᐢᑿEleven beavers
mitâtaht sihkosaᒥᑖᑕᐦᐟ ᓯᐦᑯᓴTen ermines
kîkâ-mitâtaht sâkwîsiwaᑮᑳᓂᑖᑕᐦᐟ ᓵᑹᓯᐘNine minks
ayinânîw nikikwaᐊᔨᓈᓃᐤ ᓂᑭᑿEight otters
tîpakohp wâpisiwaᑏᐸᑯᐦᑊ ᐚᐱᓯᐘSeven swans
nikotwâsik mahkîsîsaᓂᑯᑤᓯᐠ ᒪᐦᑮᓰᓴSix foxes
niyânan wâposwaᓂᔮᓇᐣ ᐚᐳᔁFive rabbits
niyo sîsîpaᓂᔪ ᓰᓰᐸFour ducks
nisto pithîwaᓂᐢᑐ ᐱᖩᐘThree grouse
nîso mîmîwaᓃᓱ ᒦᒦᐘTwo doves
ikwa piyak môswa sakâhk î-ayât.ᐃᑿ ᐱᔭᐠ ᒨᔁ ᓴᑳᕽ ᐃᐊᔮᐟAnd one moose in the bush

… And when you’re ready to sing along without following the bouncing Sol, here’s a link to a bare karaoke track:

Posted in Audio (th-dialect), Christmas, Solomon Ratt, Songs in Cree, Uncategorized, Video | Leave a comment

Chipmunk Christmas Link Repaired

It’s not just Chipmunks who are in a hurry for Christmas! Several people have been kind enough to report a broken link to Dolores Sand’s recording of the Chipmunk’s Christmas Song. I’m happy to report the link is now repaired! It’s awfully nice to imagine kids learning this song!

The Chipmunk Christmas Song

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

2017: pawâcakinisîsipîsim / ᐸᐚᒐᑭᓂᓰᓯᐲᓯᒼ / December

2017calendar-corrected_page_12Thanks to Solomon Ratt for allowing the Cree Literacy Network to share his 2017 calendar, complete with his own original illustrations. Following his request, we will post one image at the beginning of each month. For those who like to plan a little further in advance, a link to complete pdfs is included here:
Y- and Th-Dialect Version: http://creeliteracy.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/2017CalendarCorrected_Whole.pdf
N- and Th-Dialect Version: http://creeliteracy.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/2017CalendarN.pdf

NEW Calendar for 2018:

2018Calendar

Posted in Calendar | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Who knew Santa was a Hoop Dancer?

James Jones gives a new definition to “lively and quick” in this epic hoop dance that Cathy Wheaton recently shared on Facebook. He’s dancing to Moccasin Burner by Northern Cree, but his moves are flashier than the lights on that Christmas tree!
Hoka ho ho ho! (Shared here with permission: hay hay, James!)

Posted in Christmas, Uncategorized, Video | Leave a comment

New project funded: The Six Seasons of the Asiniskow Ithiniwak

Congratulations to elder William Dumas and his many collaborators for inspiring a whole collection of books to accompany the  award-winning book, Pîsim Finds her Miskanow.

Thanks to Robert Falcon Ouellette (Member of Parliament for Winnipeg Centre, and dedicated Cree language learner) for sharing his interview with Mavis Reimer of the University of Winnipeg. Robert writes:

In 1993, the remains of a 25 year old Cree woman were found. She had lived 350 years ago near South Indian Lake [opiponipîwin]. The community lead archaeological research resulted in Elder William Dumas writing an award winning book, Pisim Finds Her Miskanow. This also led to working with Dr Reimer from The University of Winnipeg to create a research project with the goals of reclaiming Rocky Cree language history and culture. This is an interview with Dr Reimer about the community based research and partnerships that she has formed to ensure that knowledge moves beyond the academia to impacting community. Six Seasons research project is receiving $2.5M over 7 years to make this research possible. Only 15 projects were accepted for funding in this very competitive category of SSHRC. I was happy to be a part of making the announcement of funding today but also to hear directly from Dr Reimer on what work she will be doing in partnership.

The University of Winnipeg issued a press release and backgrounder – which you can view here as pdfs. Undergraduate students should watch out for Research Assistant opportunities in the coming year!

PR-2017-11-01 Six Seasons Rocky Cree
BG – Six Seasons of the Asiniskow Ithiniwak Final

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Eight Great Ways to Help Yourself Learn Cree: Solomon Ratt (y-dialect, audio)

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

If you’d like to download all eight images at once for printing, click here for the pdf.

Click here for a prayer to help with Step 5.

Click the audio link to listen and read along:

8 kiskisiwina ta-ati-nihtâ-nihithowîyahk8 ᑭᐢᑭᓯᐏᓇ ᑕ ᐊᑎ ᓂᐦᑖ   ᓂᐦᐃᖪᐑᔭᕽ 8 memory aids for us to begin speaking Cree
1. sîhkimitok ta-nêhiyawêmototawitoyêk. ᓰᐦᑭᒥᑐᐠ ᑕ ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᒧᑐᑕᐏᑐᔦᐠ᙮Encourage each other to speak Cree to each other.
2. miskawik iyiniwak kâ-nêhiyawêcik êkwa sîhkimik ta-nêhiyawêmototawiskik.ᒥᐢᑲᐏᐠ ᐃᔨᓂᐘᐠ ᑳ   ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᒋᐠ ᐁᑿ ᓰᐦᑭᒥᐠ ᑕ ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᒧᑐᑕᐏᐢ᙮Find people who speak Cree and ask them to speak Cree to you.
3. âpacihtâ itwêwina masinahikan ta-kiskinawâcihtâyan kitâpacihcikana kîkihk.ᐋᐸᒋᐦᑖ ᐃᑘᐏᓇ ᒪᓯᓇᐦᐃᑲᐣ ᑕ   ᑭᐢᑭᓇᐚᒋᐦᑖᔭᐣ ᑭᑖᐸᒋᐦᒋᑲᓇ ᑮᑭᕽ᙮Use the dictionary to label all the belongings in your home.
4. natohtamok nêhiyawê-nikamona êkwa nêhiyawê-âcimowina.ᓇᑐᐦᑕᒧᐠ ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍ   ᓂᑲᒧᓇ ᐁᑿ ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍ   ᐋᒋᒧᐏᓇ ᙮Listen to Cree songs and Cree stories.
5. miska nêhiyawê-kâkîsimowin êkwa kâkîsimo tahto-kîsikâw.ᒥᐢᑲ ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍ   ᑳᑮᓯᒧᐏᐣ ᐁᑿ ᑳᑮᓯᒧ ᑕᐦᑐ   ᑮᓯᑳᐤ ᙮Find a Cree prayer and pray every day.
6. kwayâtastamâso kanakê pêyak kîsikâw ita kapê ta-nêhiyawêyan.ᑿᔮᑕᐢᑕᒫᓱ ᑲᓇᑫ ᐯᔭᐠ ᑮᓯᑳᐤ ᐃᑕ ᑲᐯ ᑕ ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᔭᐣ ᙮Set aside at least one day where you always speak Cree.
7. nêhiyaw-masinahikê ispî masinahikêpicikêyani.ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐤ   ᒪᓯᓇᐦᐃᑫ ᐃᐢᐲ ᒪᓯᓇᐦᐃᑫᐱᒋᑫᔭᓂ ᙮Write in Cree when texting.
8. âhkamêyimok: êkâwiya pakicêk!ᐋᐦᑲᒣᔨᒧᐠ: ᐁᑳᐏᔭ ᐸᑭᒉᐠ!Persevere! Don’t give up!

 

 

8 kiskisiwina ta
Posted in Audio (y-dialect), Literacy and Learning, Printable, Solomon Ratt | 5 Comments

Solomon’s Christmas Cards 2017 (y- and th-dialects with audio)

Help spread the Christmas spirit in Cree with very best holiday wishes from the Cree Literacy Network.
Download Solomon Ratt’s Christmas card images to print your own cards. And don’t forget to listen to the audio to practise your pronunciation!

For additional Christmas material, look for “Christmas” in the Category menu on the right, or click here: http://creeliteracy.org/category/lesson-2/seasonal/christmas/

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

y-dialect:

th-dialect:

Posted in Audio (th-dialect), Audio (y-dialect), Christmas, Solomon Ratt | Leave a comment