Cree Code Talkers

FrankTomkinsBinyon’s verse follows Flanders Fields as an important poem of remembrance. In part, it reads,

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old:
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning,
We will remember them.

As part of our remembrance, here are stories connected with second world war Cree code talkers. It’s an honour to remember them here.

First, oral history from Frank Tomkins, a World War II veteran from Grouard Alberta, whose brothers served as Cree code talkers. He was also reportedly a grandson of Poundmaker.

Listen here:

Another online article (without audio) about Alberta’s Charles “Checker” Tomkins, another Cree-speakingCharesTomkins code talker,  can be found online at:

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Flanders yikwahaskānihk : “In Flanders Fields”

Public Domain Image

In Flanders Fields by John McCrae is perhaps the most beloved war poem ever written. We share it here in honour of Cree-speaking veterans of many wars.
 Thanks to Jean Okimāsis and Arok Wolvengrey for sharing their Plains Cree translation, based on the Woods Cree translation by Minnie McKenzie. 
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Flanders yikwahaskānihk wāh-wēpāstanwa wāpikwaniya
tastawāyihk pimitāskwahikana kā-nāh-nīpitēstēki
ta-kiskinawācihtāhk ita kā-pimisiniyāhk; ēkwa kīsikohk
aniki ē-sōhkē-nikamocik piyēsīsak ē-pimihācik
ētataw pēhtākosiwak iyikohk ē-māh-matwēwēhk askīhk.

In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.

onakataskēwak niyanān.  namōya māka kayās
nikī-pimātisinān, nikī-mōsihtānān kā-sākāstēk, nikī-wāpahtēnān kā-pahkisimok.
nikī-sākihiwānān mīna nikī-sākihikawinān, māka ēkwa nipimisininān
ōta Flanders yikwahaskānihk.

We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.

kiyawāw ēkwa naskwāhihkok kinōtinākaniminawak
ē-kī-sākōcihikoyāhkik, kitāsōnamātinān
iskotēw; ohpinamok ēkwa kiyawāw.
kīspin ānwēhtawiyāhki niyanān kā-nakataskēyāhk,
namwāc nika-aywēpinān, āta ē-ohpikiki wāpikwaniya
ōta Flanders yikwahaskānihk.

Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.


First published here November 2013.

Posted in Poetry, Reading Practice, Translation | Tagged , , | 2 Comments

Some well-deserved attention for Sol’s new book

Solomon Ratt author of Woods Cree Stores reading from his book during book launch at First Nations University of Canada - Photo credit: Regina Leader-Post, October 30, 2014

Solomon Ratt author of Woods Cree Stores reading from his book during book launch at First Nations University of Canada – Photo credit: Regina Leader-Post, October 30, 2014

Thanks to Dianna Sakisheway for sharing via Facebook some of the press about Solomon’s new book, and thanks to Arok Wolvengrey for sharing a copy with me at the Algonquian Conference last weekend, so I could read the whole thing!

First, Kerry Benjoe’s article from the Regina Leader-Post:

FNUniv professor preserving Cree language through stories and humour.

Even better: Sol’s October 29, 2014 interview on CBC Morning Edition With Sheila Coles, captured and shared by Dianna is SOLid gold. As Dianna says, “My heart skips a beat every time I hear you say, “Yeah, ahhh, I fell in love…”

Screen Shot 2014-10-31 at 6.21.34 PMAnother nice piece appears in the Eagle Feather News, complete with photo of Sol, plus Arok Wolvengrey and Jean Okimâsis.

The book itself is available from McNally Robinson or Amazon.
Details about the book itself can be found in our earlier post:


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Marguerite MacKenzie on CBC Cree Radio

Screen Shot 2014-10-27 at 2.07.56 PM A pleasant surprise after spending the weekend with Marguerite MacKenzie at the Algonquian Conference to see her featured on Cree Radio CBC this morning.

Click here to listen in!

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As Long As the Sun Shines – Treaties in Saskatchewan

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Thanks once again to Tyrone Tootoosis for posting this gem via Facebook. The narrator is his late mother-in-law Bernelda Wheeler; first person Cree language comments are provided by elder Danny Musqua, and late elders Gordon Oakes and Jimmy Myo.

This piece provides history, culture and language all in one, with a beautiful collection of contemporary (2002) and archival photographs.

Transcribing the Cree content in SRO would be a great exercise for some student (the English translation is provided as subtitles): Who is willing to try?

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Edmonton Oilers Honour First Nations Hockey

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(Because Cree Literacy is so much more than just knowing how to read and write!)

This video-of-the-day from Nation Talk was first posted on August 22, 2014, but came to my attention this week through Roxanne Tootoosis. It gave me chills, in the best possible way.

In it, distinguished former players – now Cree elders – Fred Sasakamoose, Ted Hodgson, and Chief Wilton Littlechild, discuss the struggle for the right to play hockey at Residential School Hockey and the struggle for acceptance as non-White professional players in the 50s and 60s. They oversee the ceremonial puck drop, accompanied by youth representatives from a number of nearby reserves.

The unique performance of O Canada by the Asani Singers (a trio of First Nations and metis women) ventures into pan-Indianism by supporting traditional “western” harmony with a layer of Innuit throat singing. The text itself is divided into equal parts of in English, French and Plains Cree.

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Four Roads – A story from Solomon Ratt

nêwo mêskanawa / ᓀᐅᐧ  ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐊᐧ / Four Roads

Salamô âcimow

Another original story written by Solomon Ratt in his own th-dialect Woods Cree (and translated into English).

Click the audio link to listen and read along!

[1] pêyakwâw êsa nêwo nâpêwak kî-pimohtêwak mêskanâhk. sâwanohk êsa kâ-kî-ohtohtêcik. kinwêsk êsa ohci kâ-kî-pê-pimâcihocik, mêtoni ê-ati-nêstohtêcik. kêtahtawê kâ-takohtêcik ita ê-pâh-paskêmoyik mêskanaw. kî-nakîwak. pitamâ ê-wî-aywêpicik mwayî-ahtohtêtwâwi. kâh-kitâpahtamwak mêskanawa ayisk êkâ ê-kî-kihcinâhocik tânima mêskanaw kita-pimitisahahkik.

ᐯᔭᑳᐧᐤ ᐁᓴ ᓀᐅᐧ ᓈᐯᐊᐧᐠ ᑮ ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐊᐧᐠ  ᒣᐢᑲᓈᐦᐠ᙮  ᓵᐊᐧᓄᕁ  ᐁᓴ  ᑳ ᑮ ᐅᐦᑐᐦᑌᒋᐠ᙮  ᑭᓀᐧᐢᐠ  ᐁᓴ  ᐅᐦᒋ  ᑳ ᑮ ᐯ ᐱᒫᒋᐦᐅᒋᐠ, ᒣᑐᓂ ᐁ ᐊᑎ ᓀᐢᑐᐦᑌᒋᐠ᙮ ᑫᑕᐦᑕᐁᐧ ᑳ ᑕᑯᐦᑌᒋᐠ ᐃᑕ ᐁ ᐹᐦ ᐸᐢᑫᒧᔨᐠ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ᙮ ᑮ ᓇᑮᐊᐧᐠ᙮ ᐱᑕᒫ ᐁ ᐄᐧ ᐊᔦᐧᐱᒋᐠ ᒪᐧᔩ ᐊᐦᑐᐦᑌᑖᐧᐃᐧ᙮ ᑳᐦ ᑭᑖᐸᐦᑕᒪᐧᐠ  ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐊᐧ ᐊᔨᐢᐠ ᐁᑳ ᐁ ᑮ ᑭᐦᒋᓈᐦᐅᒋᐠ ᑖᓂᒪ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ ᑭᑕ ᐱᒥᑎᓴᐦᐊᐦᑭᐠ᙮

Once there were four men walking along the road. They came from the south. They had travelled for a long time so they were getting tired. All of a sudden they arrived at a place where the road branched off. They stopped. They were going to rest for a bit before they set off again. They look at the roads not being sure of which road they would follow.

[2] pêyak anima mêskanaw pahkisimotâhk ay-itamon. âyimaninâkwan êwako mêskanaw. misiwêskamik ay-apiwak asiniyak êkwa mîna mistikwak ê-kâh-kipiskahkik mêskanaw. kwayask âyimaninâkwan êkotê pahkisimotâhk kâ-itamok mêskanaw.

ᐯᔭᐠ ᐊᓂᒪ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ ᐸᐦᑭᓯᒧᑖᕁ ᐊᕀ ᐃᑕᒧᐣ᙮ ᐋᔨᒪᓂᓈᑲᐧᐣ ᐁᐊᐧᑯ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ᙮ ᒥᓯᐁᐧᐢᑲᒥᐠ ᐊᕀ ᐊᐱᐊᐧᐠ ᐊᓯᓂᔭᐠ ᐁᑲᐧ ᒦᓇ ᒥᐢᑎᑲᐧᐠ ᐁ ᑳᐦ ᑭᐱᐢᑲᐦᑭᐠ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ᙮ ᑲᐧᔭᐢᐠ ᐋᔨᒪᓂᓈᑲᐧᐣ ᐁᑯᑌ ᐸᐦᑭᓯᒧᑖᕁ ᑳ ᐃᑕᒧᐠ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ᙮

One of the roads led to the west. That road looked difficult. All over the place there were rocks and logs blocking the road. The road to the west looked extremely difficult.

[3] kotak anima mêskanaw sâkâstênohk ay-itamon. êwako mêskanaw miyonâkwan ayisk misiwê ita ê-ây-ohpikihki wâpikwaniya. wêhcasininâkwan êkotê sâkâstênohk kâ-itamok mêskanaw.

ᑯᑕᐠ ᐊᓂᒪ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ ᓵᑳᐢᑌᓄᕁ ᐊᕀ ᐃᑕᒧᐣ᙮ ᐁᐊᐧᑯ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ ᒥᔪᓈᑲᐧᐣ ᐊᔨᐢᐠ ᒥᓯᐁᐧ ᐃᑕ ᐁ ᐋᕀ ᐅᐦᐱᑭᐦᑭ ᐋᐧᐱᑲᐧᓂᔭ᙮ ᐁᐧᐦᒐᓯᓂᓈᑲᐧᐣ ᐁᑯᑌ ᓵᑳᐢᑌᓄᕁ ᑳ ᐃᑕᒧᐠ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ᙮

 Another of the roads led to the east. That road looked beautiful because flowers grew all over. That road that led to the east looked easy.

 [4] kotak anima mêskanaw kîwêtinohk ay-itamon. êwako mêskanaw nanâtohkinâkwan ayisk waciya

ê-nâh-nôkwahki êkwa mîna asiniyak êkwa mistikwak ê-kâh-kipiskahkik êkwa mîna wâpikwaniya ê-ây-ohpikihki misiwê ita. mêtoni môcikaninâkwan kîwêtinohk kâ-itamok mêskanaw.

ᑯᑕᐠ ᐊᓂᒪ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ ᑮᐁᐧᑎᓄᕁ ᐊᕀ ᐃᑕᒧᐣ᙮ ᐁᐊᐧᑯ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ ᓇᓈᑐᐦᑭᓈᑲᐧᐣ ᐊᔨᐢᐠ ᐊᐧᒋᔭ ᐁ ᓈᐦ ᓅᑲᐧᐦᑭ ᐁᑲᐧ ᒦᓇ ᐊᓯᓂᔭᐠ ᐁᑲᐧ ᒥᐢᑎᑲᐧᐠ ᐁ ᑳᐦ ᑭᐱᐢᑲᐦᑭᐠ ᐁᑲᐧ ᒦᓇ ᐋᐧᐱᑲᐧᓂᔭ ᐁ ᐋᕀ ᐅᐦᐱᑭᐦᑭ ᒥᓯᐁᐧ ᐃᑕ᙮ ᒣᑐᓂ ᒨᒋᑲᓂᓈᑲᐧᐣ ᑮᐁᐧᑎᓄᕁ ᑳ ᐃᑕᒧᐠ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ᙮

Another road led to the north. That road had a varied landscape because there were hills visible as well as rocks and logs blocking the road but also there were flowers growing all over. The road leading to the north looked like it would be fun.

[5] “tânima mâka mêskanaw takî-pimitisahamahk?” kâ-kî-itwêcik êsa ôki nâpêwak. sâwanohk itâpiwak mâka namôya êwako mêskanaw nohtê-pimitisahamwak ayisk êkotê ohci kâ-pê-ohtohtêcik.

“ᑖᓂᒪ ᒫᑲ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ ᑕᑮ ᐱᒥᑎᓴᐦᐊᒪᐦᐠ?” ᑳ ᑮ ᐃᑌᐧᒋᐠ ᐁᓴ ᐆᑭ ᓈᐯᐊᐧᐠ᙮ ᓵᐊᐧᓄᕁ ᐃᑖᐱᐊᐧᐠ ᒫᑲ ᓇᒨᔭ ᐁᐊᐧᑯ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ ᓄᐦᑌ ᐱᒥᑎᓴᐦᐊᒪᐧᐠ ᐊᔨᐢᐠ ᐁᑯᑌ ᐅᐦᒋ ᑳ ᐯ ᐅᐦᑐᐦᑌᒋᐠ᙮

“Which road should we follow?” they men said. They look to the south but they didn’t want to follow that road because that is where they had come from.

[6] “mahti êsa niya niwî-pimitisahên anima mêskanaw pahkisimotâhk kâ-itamok. ayimaninâkwan ôta ohci mâka namôya êtikwê kapê ta-âyiman,” itwêw awa pêyak nâpêw. ati-sipwêhtêw ê-nakatât owîcêwâkana.

“ᒪᐦᑎ ᐁᓴ ᓂᔭ ᓂᐄᐧ ᐱᒥᑎᓴᐦᐁᐣ ᐊᓂᒪ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ ᐸᐦᑭᓯᒧᑖᕁ ᑳ ᐃᑕᒧᐠ᙮ ᐊᔨᒪᓂᓈᑲᐧᐣ ᐆᑕ ᐅᐦᒋ ᒫᑲ ᓇᒨᔭ ᐁᑎᑫᐧ ᑲᐯ ᑕ ᐋᔨᒪᐣ,” ᐃᑌᐧᐤ ᐊᐊᐧ ᐯᔭᐠ ᓈᐯᐤ᙮ ᐊᑎ ᓯᐯᐧᐦᑌᐤ ᐁ ᓇᑲᑖᐟ ᐅᐄᐧᒉᐋᐧᑲᓇ᙮

“Let’s see, I’m going to follow the road to the west. It looks difficult from here but maybe it can’t always be difficult,” says one man. Off he goes leaving his companions.

[7] “mahti êsa niya niwî-pimitisahên anima mêskanaw sâkâstênohk kâ-itamok. nawac piko ninêstosin êkwa êwako mêsakanaw wêhcasininâkwan,” kâ-itwêt kotak nâpêw. aspin kâ-sipwêhtêt, ê-nakatât owîcêwâkana.

“ᒪᐦᑎ ᐁᓴ ᓂᔭ ᓂᐄᐧ ᐱᒥᑎᓴᐦᐁᐣ ᐊᓂᒪ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ ᓵᑳᐢᑌᓄᕁ ᑳ ᐃᑕᒧᐠ᙮ ᓇᐊᐧᐨ ᐱᑯ ᓂᓀᐢᑐᓯᐣ ᐁᑲᐧ ᐁᐊᐧᑯ ᒣᓴᑲᓇᐤ ᐁᐧᐦᒐᓯᓂᓈᑲᐧᐣ,” ᑳ ᐃᑌᐧᐟ ᑯᑕᐠ ᓈᐯᐤ᙮ ᐊᐢᐱᐣ ᑳ ᓯᐯᐧᐦᑌᐟ, ᐁ ᓇᑲᑖᐟ ᐅᐄᐧᒉᐋᐧᑲᓇ᙮

“Let’s see, I’m going to follow the road that leads to the east. I am a bit tired and that road looks easy,” says another of the men. Off he goes leaving his companions.

 [8] “mahti êsa niya niwî-pimitisahên anima mêskanaw kîwêtinohk kâ-itamok,” kâ-itwêt kotak nâpêw. “êwako môcikaninâkwan. âstam wîcêwin,” kâ-itât owîcêwâkana.

“ᒪᐦᑎ ᐁᓴ ᓂᔭ ᓂᐄᐧ ᐱᒥᑎᓴᐦᐁᐣ ᐊᓂᒪ ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ ᑮᐁᐧᑎᓄᕁ ᑳ ᐃᑕᒧᐠ,” ᑳ ᐃᑌᐧᐟ ᑯᑕᐠ ᓈᐯᐤ᙮ “ᐁᐊᐧᑯ ᒨᒋᑲᓂᓈᑲᐧᐣ᙮ ᐋᐢᑕᒼ ᐄᐧᒉᐃᐧᐣ,” ᑳ ᐃᑖᐟ ᐅᐄᐧᒉᐋᐧᑲᓇ᙮

“Let’s see, I’m going to follow the road that leads to the north,” says another man. “That road looks like it could be fun. Come, come with me,” he says to his companion.

 [9] “nama, ôta niwî-pêhon,” kâ-itwêt ana nâpêw. “kika-pêhitinâwâw nânitaw isi kâwi pê-itohtêyêko.” êkwâni ati-sipwêhtêyiwa owîcêwâkana. ay-âskaw mâna ay-itâpiw itê owîcêwâkana kâ-pimitisahamiyit omêskanâmiwâwa. ay-âskaw wâh-wâpamêw mâka piyisk namôya wâpamêw. êkota mêskanâhk ati-ay-apiw, ê-pêhât owîcêwâkana ayisk ê-itêyimât kâwi kita-pê-itohtêyit ita kâ-ay-apit. kinwêsk êkota pêhow. ati-napwêkinam ospitona ê-ati-ayêskaci-pêhot. piyisk maskosiya ati-ay-ohpikina ita kâ-ay-apit, mêtoni ê-ay-ati-akwanahikot.

“ᓇᒪ, ᐆᑕ ᓂᐄᐧ ᐯᐦᐅᐣ,” ᑳ ᐃᑌᐧᐟ ᐊᓇ ᓈᐯᐤ᙮ “ᑭᑲ ᐯᐦᐃᑎᓈᐋᐧᐤ ᓈᓂᑕᐤ ᐃᓯ ᑳᐃᐧ ᐯ ᐃᑐᐦᑌᔦᑯ᙮” ᐁᑳᐧᓂ ᐊᑎ ᓯᐯᐧᐦᑌᔨᐊᐧ ᐅᐄᐧᒉᐋᐧᑲᓇ᙮ ᐊᕀ ᐋᐢᑲᐤ ᒫᓇ ᐊᕀ ᐃᑖᐱᐤ ᐃᑌ ᐅᐄᐧᒉᐋᐧᑲᓇ ᑳ ᐱᒥᑎᓴᐦᐊᒥᔨᐟ ᐅᒣᐢᑲᓈᒥᐋᐧᐊᐧ᙮ ᐊᕀ ᐋᐢᑲᐤ ᐋᐧᐦ ᐋᐧᐸᒣᐤ ᒫᑲ ᐱᔨᐢᐠ ᓇᒨᔭ ᐋᐧᐸᒣᐤ᙮ ᐁᑯᑕ ᒣᐢᑲᓈᕁ ᐊᑎ ᐊᕀ ᐊᐱᐤ, ᐁ ᐯᐦᐋᐟ ᐅᐄᐧᒉᐋᐧᑲᓇ ᐊᔨᐢᐠ ᐁ ᐃᑌᔨᒫᐟ ᑳᐃᐧ ᑭᑕ ᐯ ᐃᑐᐦᑌᔨᐟ ᐃᑕ ᑳ ᐊᕀ ᐊᐱᐟ᙮ ᑭᓀᐧᐢᐠ ᐁᑯᑕ ᐯᐦᐅᐤ᙮ ᐊᑎ ᓇᐯᐧᑭᓇᒼ ᐅᐢᐱᑐᓇ ᐁ ᐊᑎ ᐊᔦᐢᑲᒋ ᐯᐦᐅᐟ᙮ ᐱᔨᐢᐠ ᒪᐢᑯᓯᔭ ᐊᑎ ᐊᕀ ᐅᐦᐱᑭᓇ ᐃᑕ ᑳ ᐊᕀ ᐊᐱᐟ, ᒣᑐᓂ ᐁ ᐊᕀ ᐊᑎ ᐊᑲᐧᓇᐦᐃᑯᐟ᙮

“No, I’m going to wait here,” says that man. “I will wait for you all here in case you should come back this way. And so his companion leaves. At times he looks where his companions followed their roads. At times he saw them but eventually he doesn’t see them. There on the road he sits, waiting for his companions because he thinks they will come back where he sits. He waits there for a long time. He folds his arms since he is getting tired of waiting. Eventually grass begins to grow around where he sits, so much so that it begins to cover him.


ahtohtê ᐊᐦᑐᐦᑌ walk away from a place (VAI)
anima ᐊᓂᒪ that
api ᐊᐱ sit (VAI)
asiniy ᐊᓯᓂᕀ stone/rock (NA)
âskaw ᐋᐢᑲᐤ sometimes
aspin ᐊᐢᐱᐣ away/off
âstam ᐋᐢᑕᒼ come
ati ᐊᑎ begin
ayêskaci ᐊᔦᐢᑲᒋ be tired (PV)
âyiman ᐋᔨᒪᐣ it is difficult (VII)
âyimaninâkwan ᐋᔨᒪᓂᓈᑲᐧᐣ it looks difficult (VII)
ayisk ᐊᔨᐢᐠ because
aywêpi ᐊᔦᐧᐱ rest (VAI)
êkâ ᐁᑳ not (use in Conjunct)
êkota ᐁᑯᑕ there
êkotê ᐁᑯᑌ over there
êkwa mîna ᐁᑲᐧ ᒦᓇ and also
êkwâni ᐁᑳᐧᓂ then
êsa ᐁᓴ as it were
êwako ᐁᐊᐧᑯ that one
itamon ᐃᑕᒧᐣ it leads there (VII)
itâpi ᐃᑖᐱ look toward a direction (VAI)
itâpi ᐃᑖᐱ look in a direction (VAI)
itê ᐃᑌ where
itêyim ᐃᑌᔨᒼ think that of someone (VTA)
itwê ᐃᑌᐧ say (VAI)
kâ-itât ᑳ-ᐃᑖᐟ he/she says to someone
kapê ᑲᐯ all the time
kâwi ᑳᐃᐧ back
kêtahtawê ᑫᑕᐦᑕᐁᐧ suddenly
kihcinâho ᑭᐦᒋᓈᐦᐅ be certain (VAI)
kika-pêhitinâwâw ᑭᑲ-ᐯᐦᐃᑎᓈᐋᐧᐤ I will for you all
kinwêsk ᑭᓀᐧᐢᐠ a long time
kipiska ᑭᐱᐢᑲ block it (VTI-1)
kitâpahta ᑭᑖᐸᐦᑕ look at (VTI-1)
kîwêtinohk ᑮᐁᐧᑎᓄᕁ north
kotak ᑯᑕᐠ another
kotak ᑯᑕᐠ another
kwanahik ᑲᐧᓇᐦᐃᐠ it covers him/her (VTA-Inv.)
kwayask ᑲᐧᔭᐢᐠ -xtremely
mahti êsa ᒪᐦᑎ ᐁᓴ let’s see
mâka namôya   êtikwê ᒫᑲ ᓇᒨᔭ ᐁᑎᑫᐧ but maybe not
mâka namôya   êwako ᒫᑲ ᓇᒨᔭ ᐁᐊᐧᑯ but not that one
mâna ᒫᓇ usually
maskosiya ᒪᐢᑯᓯᔭ grass (NI)
mêskanaw ᒣᐢᑲᓇᐤ road
mêtoni ᒣᑐᓂ very
misiwê ita ᒥᓯᐁᐧ ᐃᑕ all over the place
misiwêskamik ᒥᓯᐁᐧᐢᑲᒥᐠ all over
mistik ᒥᐢᑎᐠ log (NI)
miyonâkwan ᒥᔪᓈᑲᐧᐣ it looks beautiful (VII)
môcikaninâkwan ᒨᒋᑲᓂᓈᑲᐧᐣ it looks like fun (VII)
mwayî ᒪᐧᔩ before (PV)
nakat ᓇᑲᐟ leave someone (VTA)
nakî ᓇᑮ stop (VAI)
nama ᓇᒪ no
namôya ᓇᒨᔭ no/not
nanâtohkinâkwan ᓇᓈᑐᐦᑭᓈᑲᐧᐣ it looks like a varied thing
nânitaw isi ᓈᓂᑕᐤ ᐃᓯ just in case
nâpêw ᓈᐯᐤ man
napwêkina ᓇᐯᐧᑭᓇ fold it (VTI-1)
nawac piko ᓇᐊᐧᐨ ᐱᑯ sort of
nêstohtê ᓀᐢᑐᐦᑌ tire from walk (VAI)
nêstosi ᓀᐢᑐᓯ tire (VAI)
nêwo ᓀᐅᐧ four
niya ᓂᔭ me
nohtê ᓄᐦᑌ want to (PV)
nôkwan ᓅᑲᐧᐣ it is viible
ohci ᐅᐦᒋ from
ohpikin ᐅᐦᐱᑭᐣ it grows (VII)
ohtohtê ᐅᐦᑐᐦᑌ arrive from (VAI)
ôki ᐆᑭ these
omêskanâmiwâwa ᐅᒣᐢᑲᓈᒥᐋᐧᐊᐧ their roads
ospitona ᐅᐢᐱᑐᓇ his/her arms
ôta ᐆᑕ here
ôta ohci ᐆᑕ ᐅᐦᒋ from here
owîcêwâkana ᐅᐄᐧᒉᐋᐧᑲᓇ her/his companions
pahkisimotâhk ᐸᐦᑭᓯᒧᑖᕁ west
paskêmon ᐸᐢᑫᒧᐣ it braches off (VII)
come (PV)
pê-itohtê ᐯ-ᐃᑐᐦᑌ come hither (VAI)
pê-itohtêyêko ᐯ-ᐃᑐᐦᑌᔦᑯ if y’all come
pêh ᐯᐦ wait for someone (VTA)
pêho ᐯᐦᐅ wait (VAI)
pêyak ᐯᔭᐠ one
pêyakwâw ᐯᔭᑳᐧᐤ once
pimâciho ᐱᒫᒋᐦᐅ travel (VAI)
pimitisaha ᐱᒥᑎᓴᐦᐊ follow it (VTI-1)
pimohtê ᐱᒧᐦᑌ walk (VAI)
pitamâ ᐱᑕᒫ for now, for a bit
piyisk ᐱᔨᐢᐠ eventually
sâkâstênohk ᓵᑳᐢᑌᓄᕁ east
sâwanohk ᓵᐊᐧᓄᕁ south
sipwêhtê ᓯᐯᐧᐦᑌ leave
takohtê ᑕᑯᐦᑌ arrive (by foot) (VAI)
tânima ᑖᓂᒪ which one
tânima mâka ᑖᓂᒪ ᒫᑲ but which
waciy ᐊᐧᒋᕀ hill (NI)
wâpam ᐋᐧᐸᒼ see someone (VTA)
wâpikwaniy ᐋᐧᐱᑲᐧᓂᕀ flower (NI)
wêhcasininâkwan ᐁᐧᐦᒐᓯᓂᓈᑲᐧᐣ it looks easy (VII)
wîcêwin ᐄᐧᒉᐃᐧᐣ come with me (VTA-Inv)
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